A change of position that does not entail a change of location.
To be turned upside down.
Inversions are roller coaster elements that turn riders upside down, commonly referred to as “loops”, “hoops” or “loop de loops”.
Named after its shape that looks like an elongated Cobra Roll, the Banana Roll first appeared in 2011 on Takabisha at Fuji-Q Highland in Japan. The Gerstlaurer version, that inverts riders once, is also featured on TMNT Shellraiser at Nickelodeon Universe in New Jersey, USA. S&S Sansei came up with a double inverting variant for Steel Curtain at Kennywood in Pennsylvania, USA.
Also known as a Heartline Roll, this inversion is designed to have the track twist 360° around the train with the axis of rotation centered on the rider, usually at chest level. Outlaw Run at Silver Dollar City in Missouri, USA was the first wooden coaster to feature a Barrel Roll in 2013 and Joker at Six Flags Discovery Kingdom in California, USA became the first RMC I-Box conversion to feature one three years later.
Barrel Roll Downdrop
An inversion found on RMC coasters that was first featured on Medusa Steel Coaster at Six Flags Mexico in 2014. The inversion begins as the train comes off the lift hill, banks sharply into a Barrel Roll and begins its decent down the first drop. Barrel Roll Downdrops are only found on RMC’s I-Box conversions of former wooden coasters like Twisted Timbers at Kings Dominion in Virginia, USA and Storm Chaser at Kentucky Kingdom, USA.
An inversion often used on the B&M Inverted Coasters, it’s comprised of a mini-Dive Loop running straight into a mini-Immelmann. Both Arrow Dynamics and Vekoma have a similar element called a Double Sidewinder. The B&M version can bee seen on Afterburn at Carowinds in the Carolinas, USA, the Arrow version on Anaconda at Kings Dominion in Virginia, USA and the Vekoma one on Batman The Ride at Six Flags Mexico.
An Arrow Dynamics inversion shaped like a Bowtie, that’s similar to their Double Sidewinder/Batwing (above) inversion, except the train exits in the same direction as it enters. Dragon Mountain at Marineland Theme Park in Ontario, Canada is the only coaster to feature one.
The Butterfly is a odd inversion featured on Vekoma Multi-Loopers. It’s a bit weird, but is basically an Immelmann followed by a Dive Loop where the train leaves in the same direction as it enters. It can be seen on Goudurix at Parc Astérix in France and Ninja at Six Flags Over Georgia, USA.
The Cobra Roll is a signature inversion found on over 50 Vekoma Boomerang Coasters around the globe. Also found on many B&M coasters, it’s very similar to an Immelmann followed by a Dive Loop, however the dive out of the half loop is not as big. Its shape gives the element its name and the world’s largest Cobra Roll is featured on Alpengeist at Busch Gardens Williamsburg in Virginia, USA.
Named for its resemblance to the tool used to remove corks from bottles, the Corkscrew is an inversion that rotates 360° perpendicular to the track and is found on hundreds of coasters the world over. Different manufacturers shape and name their Corkscrews differently, but they’re all very similar and often found in pairs.
Arrow Dynamics created the first Corkscrew Coaster, which opened in 1975 at Knott’s Berry Farm in California, USA and has since been relocated to Silverwood Theme Park in Idaho, USA. The Gravity Group made history when they refurbished Hades 360 at Mt. Olympus in Wisconsin, USA by adding a Corkscrew to the wooden coaster in 2013.
An inversion similar to a Corkscrew, except the second-half of the element is reversed so the train exits the element in the opposite direction from which it entered. Arrow Dynamics debuted the Cutback in 1992 on Drachen Fire at Busch Gardens Williamsburg in Virginia, USA. It’s used by a wide variety of manufacturers, including RMC on Twisted Timbers at Kings Dominion in Virginia, USA and Gerstlauer Euro-Fighters like Hydrus at Casino Pier on the Jersey Shore, USA.
An inversion most often found on B&M Wing Coasters that flips riders upside down on the first drop. The Dive Drop begins as the train crawls off the top of the lift, and slowly flips around, before diving off back underneath the lift hill. The B&M version can be seen on X-Flight at Six Flags Great America in Illinois, USA, but other manufacturers also use it including Premier Rides on Full Throttle at Six Flags Magic Mountain in California, USA.
An inversion very similar to the Immelmann, but executed in reverse. In a Dive Loop the track climbs up and banks heavily, then drops away similar to the second half of a Vertical Loop. Many manufactures use the element, including some Togo coasters that feature “Twisting Dives“, which are very similar. Dive Loops can be seen on Kumba at Busch Gardens Tampa in Florida, USA and Cannibal at Lagoon in Utah, USA.
Double Inverting Stall
A rare RMC I-Box conversion inversion that twists the train 270° and remains in that position for few seconds before reverse twisting 270° back to normal. The element can be seen on Untamed at Walibi Holland in the Netherlands.
Fly-To-Lie (aka 180° Roll)
This 180° inversion is for Flying or 4D coasters. As the name suggests it flips the trains from the flying position to the lying position, as can be seen on Batwing at Six Flags America in Maryland, USA and X2 at Six Flags Magic Mountain in California, USA.
Flying Snake Dive
A Barrel Roll like inversion created by Intamin for Storm Runner at Hersheypark in Pennsylvania, USA. It’s a very tall Heartline Roll followed by a right hand twisting dive to spin the train off to the left.
Also known as a Barrel Roll, this inversion is designed to have the track twist 360° around the train with the axis of rotation centered on the rider, usually at chest level. Colossus at Thorpe Park in England, UK probably has the most iconic Heartline Roll, but the element can even be seen on coasters as small as Formule X at Drievliet Family Park in the Netherlands.
Immelmann (aka Sidewinder)
This inversion is the same as a Vertical Loop until the train is inverted, when the track dives off to the left or right. Although commonly known as a B&M element, the more abundant Vekoma Sidewinder is very similar to an Immelmann, only the track continues to turn making the exit roughly 90° to the entrance to the element. An Immelmann can be seen on Sheikra at Busch Gardens Tampa in Florida, USA and a Sidewinder on Ednör-l’Attaque at La Ronde in Canada.
Inclined Dive Loop
Similar to the Inclined Loop (below), this inversion is a Dive Loop tilted at a 45° angle and can be seen on less than a handful of coasters including Hydra: The Revenge at Dorney Park in Pennsylvania, USA and Gatekeeper at Cedar Point in Ohio, USA.
An Inclined Loop is a Vertical Loop tilted at a 45° angle that is featured almost entirely on B&M Stand-Up coasters, or those that have been converted to Floorless coasters, and can bee seen on Green Lantern at Six Flags Great Adventure in New Jersey, USA as well as Iron Shark at Galveston Island Pleasure Pier in Texas, USA.
This inversion has little or no change in height and rotates the rider around a central point, often their hearts. This causes the feeling of rotation and being tipped out of your seat. There are over a hundred coasters by various manufacturers that feature an Inline Twist, including Helix at Liseberg in Sweden and Sky Scream at Holiday Park in Germany.
Inverted Top Hat (aka 180° Inversion)
This inversion is entered vertically before twisting under at the top and exiting vertically while twisting out again. The Inverted Top Hat was designed by Premier Rides, who call it a 180° Inversion, and can be seen on their shuttle coasters like Mr. Freeze at Six Flags St. Louis in Missouri, USA.
This inversion is when the coaster has a Barrel Roll/Heartline Roll right out of the station. It’s designed to have the track twist 360° around the train with the axis of rotation centered on the rider, usually at chest level, and taken at slow speed. The JoJo Roll first appeared on Hydra: The Revenge at Dorney Park in Pennsylvania, USA in 2005 and more recently on Copperhead Strike at Carowinds in the Carolinas, USA.
Lie-to-Fly (aka 180° Roll)
This 180° inversion inversion is also for Flying or 4D coasters. As the name suggests it flips the trains from the lying position to the flying position, as can be seen on Nighthawk at Carowinds in the Carolinas, USA and Batwing at Six Flags America in Maryland, USA.
Built by Intamin this inversion climbs rapidly, and then as it reaches the crest of the hill the train is inverted before completing three quarters of the loop to bring it back to the inverted position where it rolls out again. The Norwegian Loop gets its name from its first installation on Speed Monster at Tusenfryd in Norway and can also be seen on Fahrenheit at Hersheypark in Pennsylvania, USA.
It’s similar to a Batwing, except the entrance and exit of the inversion is formed differently. In a Pretzel Knot, the twisted formation of the element’s entrance and exit resembles a pretzel shape as opposed to a Batwing‘s heart shape. The defunct Moonsault Scramble at Fuji-Q Highland in Japan was the first coaster to feature this element in 1983 and the second was Banshee at Kings Island in Ohio, USA, nearly 31 years later.
An inversion exclusive to B&M Flying Coasters, first appearing on Superman – Ultimate Flight at Six Flags Over Georgia in 2002. The Pretzel Loop involves diving from the flying position head first towards the ground, then pulling out on your back, then back up and into the flying position. It is one of the more intense elements found on roller coasters due to the high G-Forces. Tatsu at Six Flags Magic Mountain has the world’s largest Pretzel Loop and one can also be seen on Manta at SeaWorld Orlando in Florida, USA.
An inversion found on Arrow Dynamics/S&S 4D coasters, it’s basically a half loop and can be entered from the top or bottom with the train on top of the track (Outside Raven Turn) or suspended below the track (Inside Raven Turn) and can be seen on X2 at Six Flags Magic Mountain in California, USA.
Reverse Cobra Roll
Similar to a Cobra Roll, it’s basically two Zero-G Rolls with a banked turn in between so that the entrance and exit are both taken in the opposite direction. Designed by RMC, the element can be seen on Twisted Cyclone at Six Flags Over Georgia, USA.
This is the main inversion on Suspended Looping Coasters by Vekoma. In this element the train enters through a half loop, into an Inline Twist and back down through a half loop. The Roll Over can be seen on Batman The Ride at Six Flags Mexico and Mind Eraser at Six Flags America in Maryland, USA.
This inversion is very similar to a Cobra Roll, but the second inversion is flipped around, causing the direction of entrance to be the same as the direction of exit. Vekoma use the Sea Serpent on their LSM Launch Coasters like Xpress: Platform 13 at Walibi Holland in the Netherlands, but other manufactures use it as well, including B&M on Medusa at Six Flags Discovery Kingdom in California, USA.
This inversion is basically a half-loop followed by a half-corkscrew and is is commonly found on Arrow Dynamics and Vekoma coasters. A Sidewinder is very similar to an Immelmann, only the track continues to turn making the exit roughly 90° to the entrance to the element. The Arrow version can be seen on Anaconda at Kings Dominion in Virginia, USA and Vekoma’s on Batman The Ride at Six Flags Mexico.
Step-Up Under Flip
This inversion begins with an upward climb, followed by a 270° roll and a dive down towards the side. Designed by Rocky Mountain Construction for their I-Box conversions, it can be seen on Untamed at Walibi Holland in the Netherlands and on Twisted Cyclone at Six Flags Over Georgia, USA.
Twisted Horseshoe Roll
Predominantly found on Mack Rides LSM Launch Coasters, this inversion is basically a Corkscrew, followed by a 180° banked turn that leads into another Corkscrew in the reverse direction. The element was designed by Intamin in 2005 for Maverick at Cedar Point in Ohio, USA and Mack Rides debuted their version on blue fire Megacoaster at Europa Park in Germany four years later.
The first Vertical Loops appeared during the early half of the 1900s and is one of the most common inversions in the world. Most Vertical Loops are elliptical in shape. Circular loops are common on Schwarzkopf coasters and are often more intense than elliptical loops. They are also used on a wide variety of coaster types like Bullet at Selva Mágica in Mexico and Goliath at Six Flags Fiesta Texas, USA.
This inversion begins the same as a normal hill; however at the moment where the Zero-G Roll starts, the train begins to flip. The revolution lasts the same amount of time as the Zero-G, creating the sensation of floating and rolling at the same time. Many manufacturers use it on a variety of coaster types and the Inverted Coaster version can be seen on Patriot at Worlds Of Fun in Missouri, USA, while the RMC variant can be seen on Storm Chaser at Kentucky Kingdom, USA.
Zero-G Stall (aka Top Gun Stall)
Designed by RMC, the Zero-G Stall is similar to a Zero-G Roll (above), however after the track has twisted 180° on the ascent, it stays inverted through the crest before twisting back on the descent. Also similarly, riders experience a feeling of weightlessness during the inverted crest. The inversion can be seen on Joker at Six Flags Discovery Kingdom in California, USA, but other manufacturers have their own variant including S&S Sansei on Steel Curtain at Kennywood in Pennsylvania, USA.
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