HISTORY

From humble beginnings to dominating modern theme park skylines, roller coasters are steeped with a rich history of technical advancements. Here’s a timeline of many highlights that influenced the development of roller coasters throughout the years.

 

Timeline

2018
May 12

First Single Track Coaster Debuts

Rocky Mountain Construction first revealed their new single track roller coaster concept exclusively to CoasterForce in 2015 and three years later they debuted their first “Raptor Track” coaster with the opening of Wonder Woman Golden Lasso Coaster on May 12, 12018 at Six Flags Fiesta Texas in the USA. The single rail allows for quicker and smoother transitions as well as fewer track supports than traditional dual track coasters.

2016
March 26

First Roller Coaster with Virtual Reality

While Virtual Reality had been tested on roller coasters prior, The New Revolution Virtual Reality Coaster at Six Flags Magic Mountain in California, USA, opened in 2016 as the first to fully feature VR on board. The roller coaster also sported newly designed trains, in part as celebration of the coaster’s 50th anniversary.

2013
March 15

RMC Debuts Company’s First Roller Coaster

Rocky Mountain Construction was contracted by several companies to construct roller coasters and by parks to improve existing coasters, but with the opening of Outlaw Run on March 15, 2013 at Silver Dollar City in Missouri, USA, the company showed they could design and build top rated coasters from the ground up.

2011
April 22

Rocky Mountain Construction Debuts New Texas Giant

In 2010 RMC was contracted by Six Flags Over Texas, USA, to convert the classic Texas Giant wooden roller coaster to an all-new steel track design, which reopened on April 22, 2011 as the New Texas Giant, featuring steeper drops and added elements. The company has gone on to convert many more wooden coasters that now rank among the best steel coasters in the world.

April 1

B&M Builds Wing Coaster

Although Intamin was first to the punch in 2007 with the one-off Furius Baco at PortAventura Park in Spain, B&M started the wing coaster popularity with the opening of Raptor on April 1, 2011 at Gardaland in Italy. The hulking coasters feature seats beside the track, rather than on top or below, and near-miss elements that add excitement to the ride experience.

Thunderbird Holiday World
Thunderbird at Holiday World in Indiana, USA, opened as the first B&M launched Wing Coaster in 2015.

2003
May 4

First Full-Circuit Roller Coaster to Break 400 Feet Height

Top Thrill Dragster opened on May 4, 2003 at Cedar Point in Ohio, USA, as the tallest, fastest full-circuit roller coaster in the world. Standing 420 feet (130m) tall, it was eclipsed by 36 feet (9m) two years later with the opening of another Intamin Strata Coaster – Kingda Ka at Six Flags Great Adventure in New Jersey, USA.

2002
May 13

2000-Onwards – Wooden Roller Coasters Second Glory Years?

The break up of Custom Coasters International in 2002 led to two new wooden roller coaster companies forming, Gravity Group and Great Coasters International (GCI). Both companies have gone on to forge the way for incredible new wooden coaster designs. GCI still use traditional methods of building wooden coasters, whereas Gravity Group tend to use metal supports with wooden track on top (this allows for much cheaper and quicker construction of larger coasters).

March 22

First Roller Coaster with Ten Inversions

Continuing the inversion count record, Intamin debuted Colossus on March 22, 2002 at Thorpe Park in the UK, which featured a world record ten inversions. Colossus has a variety of inversions, including vertical loops, in-line twists, corkscrews, and a cobra roll. The model proved to be so popular that it has been cloned several times.

January 12

First 4th Dimension Roller Coaster Opens

On January 12, 2002 Arrow Dynamics opened X, the world’s first 4th Dimension roller coaster, at Six Flags Magic Mountain in California, USA, which independently flipped rider seats throughout the course of the ride. X would turn out to be plagued with mechanical problems, so much that it led to Arrow Dynamics’ ultimate bankruptcy; however S&S Power would continue support for the ride and its eventual reincarnation as X2, which featured lighter, more reliable trains and added multi-sensory effects.

2001
April 13

Tallest Wooden Coaster Record Claimed

Colossus opened on April 13, 2001 at Heide Park in Germany as the world’s tallest wooden roller coaster at nearly 197 feet (60m), a record it still carries to this day. With Colossus one of the world’s largest steel coaster companies, Intamin, debuted its “plug ‘n’ play” wooden coaster. These are the IKEA flat pack furniture of the coaster world. The coaster track and supports are laser cut in Sweden, then sent with assembly instructions to the park.

2000
May 26

Worlds Only Looping Wooden Coaster Opens

Son of Beast at Kings Island in Ohio, featured a vertical loop section that was actually made of steel. The coaster opened on May 26, 2000, but the  loop was removed in 2006 following an accident and the roller coaster was permanently closed in 2009.

May 13

First Full-Circuit Roller Coaster to Break 300 Feet Height

Intamin debuts the 310 foot (94m) tall Millennium Force on May 13, 2000 at Cedar Point in Ohio, USA, featuring a 300 foot (91m) drop and top speed of 93 mph (150 km/h). Millennium Force was also the first roller coaster to feature a cable lift and was among the first coasters to feature stadium-style train seating as well as magnetic brakes.

1997
March 15

First Roller Coaster to Break 400 Feet Height, 100 mph

Intamin debuted two magnetic LSM Launch shuttle coasters in 1997, Tower of Terror at Dreamworld in Gold Coast, Australia and Superman The Escape at Six Flags Magic Mountain in California, USA. The latter stands 415 feet (126.5m) tall with a top speed of 100 mph (161 km/h). These roller coasters featured a slightly different magnetic launch than Flight of Fear, which allowed for a more efficient launch.

Superman Escape From Krypton Six Flags Magic Mountain
In 2011 the roller coaster was renamed to Superman: Escape from Krypton when trains were reversed to launch backwards up the tower.

1996
June 14

1996-2002 – Wooden Coaster Resurgence

In the early 90’s, a company called Custom Coasters International (CCI) started to build wooden roller coasters. Using modern technology, they revisited the olden, steep, twisted designs of the 1920’s. Suddenly people were very interested in wooden coasters again thanks to woodies like The Raven at Holiday World in Indiana, USA; Megafobia at Oakwood Park in Wales, UK; Tonnerre de Zeus at Parc Astérix in France; Shivering Timbers at Michigan’s Adventure, USA; Medusa at Six Flags Mexico; and Boulder Dash at Lake Compounce in Connecticut, USA.

April 11

First Magnetic Launch Roller Coaster

In 1996 Outer Limits: Flight of Fear opened at Kings Island in Ohio and Kings Dominion in Virginia, USA, as the world’s first magnetic LIM Launch roller coasters. These roller coasters were built by Premier Rides and designed as a jumble of tight track and inversions, often described as resembling a “spaghetti bowl.”

1992
May 9

Bolliger and Mabillard Opens First Inverted Roller Coaster

Designed to give a sense of flight, B&M opened Batman The Ride on May 9, 1992 at Six Flags Great America in Illinois, USA, which provided large, sweeping inversions and intense g-forces. B&M inverted roller coasters remain one of the most popular coasters in the world and are still built to this day.

1991
July 17

The Ultimate Claims Longest Roller Coaster Record

Featuring more than 1.4 miles (2.25 km) of track, the Ultimate opened at Lightwater Valley in the UK, on July 17, 1991.

1989
May 6

First Full-Length Roller Coaster To Break 200 Feet Height

Magnum XL-200 opened at Cedar Point in Ohio, USA, on May 6, 1989 as the tallest, fastest, steepest full-length steel roller coaster in the world. The 205 foot (62m) tall coaster would be Arrow Dynamics’ fourth and final installment for Cedar Point.

1984
July 2

Vekoma Builds First Boomerang Coaster

After working with Arrow Dynamics on construction of the Corkscrew at Alton Towers in the UK, Vekoma broke off to build their own design of roller coasters. This began with the Boomerang coaster, a shuttle roller coaster that uses a chain lift to raise the train, which is dropped through a series of inversions, meets a second lift hill to raise it to the top of a second spike, and then drops to reverse course back to the station. Starting with the first four in 1984, over 50 Vekoma Boomerangs have been constructed, making it one of the most popular coaster designs in the world.

Carolina Cobra Carowinds 2
Carowind’s Carolina Cobra was the first Boomerang to feature Vekoma’s new trains that made for a smoother ride.

1983
June 24

First Roller Coaster to Break 200 Feet Height

Moonsault Scrambler, built by Sanoyas Hishino Meisho, became the first roller coaster break the 200 feet (61m) limit when it opened on June 24, 1983 at Fujiyoshida in  Japan. Standing 233 feet (71m), Moonsault Scrambler’s record would remain unbroken until 1996.

1979
April 14

The Beast Claims Longest Roller Coaster Record

On April 14, 1979 The Beast opened at Kings Island in Ohio, USA, as the world’s tallest, fastest and longest roller coaster. Featuring more than 1.4 miles (2.25 km) of track, it remains the longest wooden coaster to this day.

1977
May 14

Schwarzkopf Debuts First Launched Roller Coaster

King Kobra opened at Kings Dominion in Virginia, USA, as the world’s first launched roller coaster. Using a 50-ton counterweight, the  coaster train was launched at speeds of 53 mph (85 km/h) to go through a vertical loop and travel up a vertical spike, to then reverse and travel backwards through the course.

1976
May 8

The First Modern Loop Debuts

Hot on the heels of Arrow Dynamics, Schwarzkopf partnered with roller coaster designer Intamin to build Revolution at Six Flags Magic Mountain in California, USA. The coaster opened on May 8, 1976 and featured the first clothoid loop, which produced fewer intense g-forces than a circular vertical loop.

1975
March 5

The First Modern Inversion Debuts

Focused on continuing to push the boundaries of steel roller coaster design, Arrow Dynamics debuted the first modern inversion at Knott’s Berry Farm in California, USA, with the Corkscrew. This coaster featured two back-to-back corkscrew inversions. The iconic coaster has since been relocated to Silverwood Theme Park in Idaho, USA.

1972
April 29

Second Golden Age of Roller Coasters

Roller coasters reentered as the focus of amusement parks with the opening of Kings Island in Ohio, USA, which featured The Racer. This was the first amusement park to use a coaster as a central attraction, a model which was subsequently copied to other parks around the world.

1965
October 5

Stengel Engineering Founded

Werner Stengel first worked with Anton Schwarzkopf in 1963 to help design the first few Schwarzkopf roller coasters. Stengel recognized how important design was to the coaster industry, which encouraged him to found his own Engineering firm in 1965. In total, Stengel Engineering (now Ing.-Büro Stengel GmbH) has designed over 450 coasters; so much so that an estimated 3/4 of the world’s top steel  coasters had direct involvement from Stengel Engineering.

1959
June 14

First Steel Tubular Track Introduced

Walt Disney, inspired by the live-action film Third Man on the Mountain, opened Matterhorn Bobsleds, a mountain-themed toboggan coaster at Disneyland in California, USA. The steel track design was the first of its kind, using a tubular design that allowed for train wheels to maintain closer contact with the track, creating a smoother ride.

1949
June 12

John C. Allen Opens First Roller Coaster

Nightmare opened at Joyland in Kansas, USA, as John C. Allen’s first roller coaster. Allen would go on to design many beloved wooden coasters including Blue Streak at Cedar Point and Racer at Kings Island in Ohio, USA.

1929
June 7

First Bobsled Coaster

Following up on his 1926 patent, former British aviator John Norman Bartlett worked with John A. Miler to design and build Flying Turns, a Bobsled Coaster where the train free wheels through a trough (a.k.a chute), at Lakeside Park in Ohio, USA. Instead of sitting side-by-side, riders sit in a single row behind one other, similar to athletes in a bobsleigh.

 

flying turns
Flying Turns at Knoebels Amusement Resort in Pennsylvania, USA opened in 2013, some 40 years after the last Bartlett model was destroyed.

1922
August 16

1920’s – The First Golden Age of Roller Coasters

During the economic high times of the roaring twenty’s, there was a massive explosion of roller coasters, with more than 300 built throughout the decade. Many of these were based on John A Miller’s new Upstop Wheel design that ensured the train would stay on the track, allowing for more aggressive track layouts.

1914
July 11

Flat Steel Track Introduction

During the early 20th century, “flat” steel track (that is, non-tubular) was used for certain roller coasters to provide a smoother ride than wooden track. Steel track carried the advantage of requiring less maintenance than wooden track, and required less support structure.

1911
June 12

Virginia Reel developed

A Virginia Reel had a spinning car going down a twisting track. The one at Pleasure Beach Blackpool in the UK was demolished due to safety issues in 1981 and was one of the last remaining in the world.

1903
May 15

John A Miller Builds First Roller Coaster

A founding father of the roller coaster industry, Miller’s first creation was the simply named Roller Coaster at Cascade Park in Pennsylvania, USA. Miller would go on to design more than 140 coasters.

1902
June 2

Leap the Dips Built

Leap the Dips is the oldest operating roller coaster in the world opened on June 2, 1920. It’s a side-friction Toboggan coaster and resides at Lakemount Park in Pennsylvania, USA.

1887
April 6

First Toboggan Coasters Debut

Around the same time as the first Scenic Railway appeared, so did the Toboggan roller coaster (also known as Figure 8 or Leap the Dips). These coasters ran through wooden troughs that featured mild dips and turns, while wheels on the side and bottom of the car guided the train along. Brakes in the track, controlled by an operator, kept speeds down.

March 23

First Scenic Railway

Developed and built by LaMarcus Thompson at Atlantic City in New Jersey, USA, these rides were seen as an exciting tour, rather than a heart-stopping adventure. The ride had wheels underneath, and on the sides, but nothing held the cars onto the track, so speed was controlled by a brakeman on the ride.

1885
June 18

First Commercial Looping Coaster Debut

Flip-Flap Railway, featuring a 25 foot (7.6m) tall loop, opened at Coney Island in New York, USA.

1884
April 9

Switchback Railways Debut

These early coasters were made famous by LeMarcus Thompson and first opened at New York City’s Coney Island in 1884. Though Richard Knudson patented the design first, it was Thompson that brought them to the masses.

Riders would climb to the top of the structure and get in the car. It would then gently, at around 6 mph (10 km/h), undulate to the ground. There it would be pushed up the other side by workers. At the top, the car would be “switched” onto the parallel return track and sent back to the start.

 

switchback 1888
Rendering of a computer re-created Switchback.

1840
August 12

First Looping Coasters Debut in Europe

The first looping roller coasters made their first appearance in Europe in the 1840’s with one opening in France and a smaller one in the UK.

1817
March 17

First Roller Coasters

Two wooden tracked “coasters” were built in France. They had very simple layouts, with carriages connected to the track.